Fuel and Exhaust Terminology

Butane
Component of raw natural gas, contains . A gas best known for being contained in cigarette lighters and aerosols. Often this gas is sold in prepackaged containers as it is used in camping for lighting and cooking.

Carbon Dioxide (Co2)
A colourless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. It does not burn, and under normal conditions, is stable, inert and nontoxic. Although it is not a poison, it can cause death by suffocation if inhaled in large amounts. Carbon dioxide occurs in nature both free and in combination. Because it is a product of combustion of carbonaceous fuels (e.g., coal, coke, fuel oil, gasoline, and cooking gas), there is usually more of it in city air than in country air. Some sources indicate that the natural balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is growing from its stable level of 0.13% to a predicted 0.14% by the year 2000. It is anticipated that this extra carbon dioxide will fuel the greenhouse effect, warm the atmosphere, and further disrupt the natural carbon dioxide cycle (see Global Warming).

CNG
Compressed Natural Gas used for transport fuel.

Co
This is more commonly known as Carbon Monoxide and is an unwanted gas. It is created when fossil fuels are burnt with insufficient oxygen for correct and complete combustion to occur. It is a potentially lethal gas in large quantities. Output of CO from gas appliances is strictly governed with appropriate warnings where potential dangers exist. CO is dangerous in confined and unventilated spaces and there are risks of excess CO leaking from old appliances which have either not been serviced or have been modified in such a way as to not allow the gas to burn correctly and completely.

Coalgas
Gas produced from Coal. Use of this gas has declined to virtually nil in favour of Natural Gas.

Flare Up
This occurs when there are excessive fats and oils building up on a burner resulting in their ignition and additional flames being created .

Fuel Gas
A commonly distributed gas used for fuel, such as natural gas, propane, landfill gas, etc.

Gas
That state of matter which expands to fill the entire container which holds it. Gas is one of the forms of matter (solid, liquid, and gas).

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Butane, propane, or a mixture of the two, obtained from oil or gas wells, or as a by product from the refining of gasoline. It is sold in metal bottles under pressure as a liquid: hence, sometimes called bottled gas. Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a mixed gas made up of Propane and Butane in New Zealand.

Natural Gas
Combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel or raw material. This is the main reticulated gas in New Zealand sourced from North Island gas fields such as Maui, Kupe and Kapuni.

Propane
An easily liquefiable hydrocarbon gas. Propane is one of the components of raw natural gas, and it is also derived from petroleum refining processes. Its chemical formula is C3H8.

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